Say Hello to EVATAR, a Mini Female Reproductive System on a 3D Chip

You might have noticed two unlinked things here in the title of the article. First, EVATAR. You must be thinking if it’s the sequel of AVATAR. But wait. It’s not. Now coming to the second on: A mini female reproductive system on a 3D chip. If you are assuming that it’s a plot of a science fiction, you would be wrong again.

It’s all about a new age technology that can generate artificial organs on 3D chips. EVATAR is a functioning mini female reproductive system on a 3D microfluidic chip. The model has all the essential elements of a female reproductive system including menstrual cycle. Yes, you read it right. The 3D chip is made of small boxes. And each box performs an equal important role in recreating a female reproductive system effectively. These boxes form fallopian tubes, ovaries, cervix, vagina, and uterus, just like an adult woman’s reproductive system.

Scientists have used human stem cells to create the tissues of EVATAR, except for the ovaries, where stem cells from mouse were used. All the mini organs are linked with each other by mini tubes and pumps. Pumps play a significant role in stimulating blood flow and eventually making the reproductive system complete. The scientists have also added certain hormones in the model in order to stimulate the ovaries to create the estrogen and progesterone hormones. The idea is to release an egg.

Now you must be thinking what these scientists were thinking when they ideated such a tool! Actually, they planned to use this model as a personalized device to understand critical feminine diseases, associated with the reproductive system. They also wanted to determine the effectiveness of clinically available drugs to treat these diseases. Apart from that, with EVATAR they would also be able to find out why a certain drug acts differently on different people.

Many scientists have previously pointed out that lesser accessibility to human organs is one of the main reasons that we have limited scope to treat a critical disease. And this is true for many diseases and disorders. Teresa Woodruff, the lead author on the study at Northwestern University explained, “If I had your stem cells and created a heart, liver, lung and an ovary, I could test 10 different drugs at 10 different doses on you and say, ‘Here’s the drug that will help your Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s or diabetes. It’s the ultimate personalized medicine, a model of your body for testing drugs.”

EVATAR is a part of a larger project conducted by the National Institutes of Health. The aim is to develop a “body-on-a-chip” model. The objective behind creating EVATAR is to build personalized models of female reproductive system that will help researchers understand conditions like infertility, ovarian cancer, fibroids, endometriosis etc. The team is now working on recreating a male reproductive system on a 3D chip. And they would call it ADATAR, which is also a part of the National Institutes of Health project. The idea is to study both these models and figure out differences in drug metabolism between women and men.

An Itchy Penis May Accompany Plasma Cell Balanitis

Every man avalanche casualty to an acquisitive penis at one time or another, accordingly award themselves bent while abrading abroad if they anticipation they were in a clandestine situation. About that acquisitive penis is acquired by some penis bloom condition, hopefully one that is adequately accessory and basically benign. In that chic is claret corpuscle balanitis, a penile affair about accompanied by some amount of itchiness.

Plasma corpuscle balanitis

Also accustomed as Zoon balanitis (after the man who declared it in the medical abstract in 1952), claret corpuscle balanitis is usually advised as audible from “regular” balanitis. The closing is an deepening of the penis, usually advance out over abundant of the glans (or head). Claret corpuscle balanitis differs in that it about consistently presents in a abundant added localized form; rather than getting advance out, it appears as a smaller, added concentrated area, searching like one applique or rash. Sometimes the red applique may aswell accept abate pin-sized dots of a altered shade.

Plasma corpuscle balanitis is abundant added accustomed in men who are complete than in men who are circumcised. Although it can action at any age, it is about consistently begin in middle-aged or earlier men. (A changeable variant, claret corpuscle vulvitis, can action in women.)

Cause cryptic

Although it was aboriginal declared in 1952, not a lot is accustomed about this condition. The cause, for example, is not well-defined. The actuality that it about occurs in complete men suggests some affiliation with the foreskin, and absolutely one of the primary accustomed causes has to do with affliction to the glans acquired by smegma architecture up. (Urine cheating beneath the foreskin and dehydration may aswell be partially to blame.) As the foreskin rubs aback and alternating beyond the glans, this creates an anarchic irritation.

This would betoken that the ataxia occurs alone in complete men who do not convenance able penis hygiene. However, it has been acclaimed in some complete men with above hygiene, as able-bodied as in a abundant abate amount of beneath men. In such cases, friction, calefaction or some anatomy of alien acerbic agency may be to blame. Some doctors conjecture that bacterial infection, or possibly even HPV, could be causes as well.


Although abounding men aberration claret corpuscle balanitis for an STI, it is in actuality a amiable action that is not sexually transmitted. It may could could cause a red, acquisitive penis – and may in some cases be accompanied by some accessory affliction – but it is about harmless.


In some cases, initiating and advancement able penis hygiene may aftereffect in the dematerialization of the balanitis. Contemporary steroids are about recommended, as are contemporary calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs). Photodynamic analysis (using drugs which are again apparent to appropriate lights) has been acclimated by some doctors. In abounding cases, circumcision may be recommended.

With treatment, a lot of cases boldness aural 4-8 weeks, although an alone may acquisition that the aeon is best or shorter.

Plasma corpuscle balanitis is advised a attenuate dermatological issue, but its exact amount is unknown; abounding doctors accept it is decidedly underreported and that there may be added cases than is about thought.

When claret corpuscle balanitis creates an acquisitive penis situation, a man will wish to yield accomplish to advice allay the itchiness. One way to advice amusement an acquisitive penis is to consistently use a aboriginal chic penis bloom crème (health professionals acclaim Man1 Man Oil, which is clinically accurate balmy and safe for skin). Penis derma that is able-bodied hydrated is beneath acceptable to itch, so baddest a crème with both a high-end analgesic (such as Shea butter) and a accustomed hydrator (such as vitamin E). Derma will be added adequate if the crème contains a almighty antioxidant, such as alpha lipoic acid, to action the chargeless radicals that can accord to adverse oxidative stress.